The Europeanisation of gender equality: who controls the scope of non-discrimination?

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The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization could learn from the insights of implementation theory. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates that the process of implementation involves a complex series of ‘decision points’ that extend beyond the control of national governments. These ‘decision points’ may veto, extend or enforce the impact of European policy. Furthermore, states do not act with a single purpose, but are comprised of a variety of, often competing, actors and interest groups.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of European Public Policy
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)544-562
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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